Since subjects of ISEE encompass natural phenomena over a wide region ranging from the Earth's surface to outer space, COSO are expected to perform empirical and advanced researches by observations. In particular, collaborations between industry, academia, and the government have led to remarkable technological developments in observations by aircraft, balloons, sounding rockets, and spacecrafts. We develop and implement innovative observation projects for orbital and suborbital observations and also promote the technological developments of these fields. COSO will play a key role in aircraft observation in Japan and promotes the aircraft observations of the Earth in cooperation with other organizations. We also investigate and promote the future space exploration missions collaborating with institutions in Japan and overseas to lead new insights of the physical phenomena.